Investigation of Blood Protein Polymorphism and Estimation of Genetic Distances in Some Dog Breeds in Turkey


Abstract: Phylogenetic relationships in some Turkish dog breeds were investigated to determine protein polymorphisms by electrophoretic analysis. Blood samples were collected from 276 dogs including the Kangal, Akbash and German Shepherd as well as Doberman Pinscher, Setter, Pointer and Labrador breeds. Enzymes and proteins were separated electrophoretically using isoelectrofocusing gel, starch gel and polyacrylamide gel. Polymorphism on albumin (Alb), postalbumin-1 (Poa-1), postalbumin-3 (Poa-3), transferrin (Tf), and esterase (ArE) loci was detected, while no polymorphism was observed on the hemoglobin (Hb) locus. These polymorphisms were used to estimate the average heterozygosity value (h-s), F-statistics and the number of gene flow in each generation (Nm). The genetic distances (dij) were also compared among these dog breeds. Average heterozygosity values were in the range 0.32 (Doberman Pinscher) to 0.41 (Kangal Shepherd), and significant differences in heterozygosity were found among the breeds (P < 0.05). F~ISw, F~ITw and F~STw values were estimated as 0.085, 0.083 and 0.160, respectively, for whole loci in the breeds and these values were significant at P < 0.001. The estimated values of genetic distance in populations other than the Setter breed were between 0.013 and 0.242. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) results showed that the Pointer and Akbash breeds formed a cluster and then the German Shepherd joined this cluster. Finally, the Labrador breed also joined this cluster. However, the Doberman and Kangal Shepherd breeds formed a different cluster. The Setter breed did not join either and formed its own cluster. The formation of 2 distinct clusters in Kangal and Akbash Shepherd dogs reveals that these breeds have different genetic structures in terms of the investigated loci and they were not closely related to each other.

Keywords: Average heterozygosity, biochemical polymorphism, cluster analysis, dog, F-statistics, genetic distance

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