An Experimental Study on the Effect of Acidic Drinks on Gingival Health in Dogs


Abstract: The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation on the effects of cola drink consumption on gingival health in dogs and thereafter to come up with an opinion as to what extent cola consumption has an impact on gingival health in humans. The study was carried out on 20 healthy dogs (range 2.3-12 years; mean 8.3 years). The dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups. The control group was not given anything containing acid, while the experimental group was given classic Coca Cola® (pH: 2.4) (500 ml daily). All the dogs were fed a number of different commercial diets throughout the study. Gingival index (Löe-Silness) and plaque index (Silness-Löe) scores were utilized in order to assess the periodontal status of the dogs. These scores were re-evaluated after 12 weeks. At the same time, a biopsy was taken from the gingiva. The biopsy samples were examined by flow-cytometry, thus the proliferative index (PI) was determined. The significance of the differences was assessed using the paired t-test. The findings suggested that the periodontal condition the control group was better than the experimental group. While the difference between the evaluations at the beginning and after 12 weeks was not found to be statistically significant in the control group (p>0.05), this difference was found to be statistically significant in the experimental group (p<0.001). Considering the DNA distribution fraction of the cell cycle, the rates of cells were determined. In the experimental group, the ratio of cells having stable DNA content, and which were not in the mitotic phase (G0), to the cells which transform into the proliferation phase with the increase in mRNA synthesis (G1) (G0/G1) was found to be low. Similarly, the ratio of cells which proliferated following the synthesis phase (G2), to cells in the mitotic phase(M) (G2/M) was determined to be low. Contrary to this, both the synthesis phase (S) and the PI phase were seen to be high. The difference between the experimental group and the control group was statistically significant. In conclusion, acidic drinks are a potential risk factor for oral health. Cola that contained high acid resulted in erosive lesions in the oral mucosa.

Keywords: Dogs, Gingival health, Flow-cytometry, Cola drinks

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