Effects of Hexachlorobenzene on Rat Renal Cortex: An Ultrastructural Study


Abstract: Male Wistar albino rats, bred and fed under standard laboratory conditions, were administered for 20 days two dosages [Group I: 750 mg/kg body weight (n = 15) and Group II: 1500 mg/kg body weight (n = 15)] of oral hexachlorobenzene resolved in corn oil. Control group animals (n = 15) received only corn oil for 20 days. Twenty-four hours after the administration of the last dose, renal tissue samples, obtained by laparotomy, were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer and 1% aqueous osmium tetroxide. Following the routine tissue processing steps, samples were blocked in Araldyte CY 212. Ultrathin sections taken by LKB V ultratome were stained with uranyl acetate-lead citrate and evaluated under a JEOL 100C transmission electron microscope. In experimental group I, glomerular features were dilated and hyperaemic capillaries, discontinuous endothelial fenestrae, ondulated and thickened basement membrane in some areas and discontinuous podocyte pedicels were observed. The proximal tubular features had irregular intracytoplasmic foldings and myelin figures in basal and apical cellular regions, whereas distal tubular cells had large, pleomorphic and electron dense mitochondria, microvillous loss and an apical cytoplasm projecting into the tubular lumen. In experimental group II, renal cortical features revealed irregularly arranged glomerular capillaries which had an ondulated and thickened basement membrane, degenerative endothelial cell fenestrae and irregularities in podocyte pedicels. The proximal tubular cells of the same group contained different size vacuoles with myelin figure-like structures, and giant vacuoles were also present within these cells. Microvilli of the distal tubular cells projecting into the lumen were absent in some regions. There was increased vascularization in the interstitial region and these dilated blood vessels seemed to invade almost the whole intertubular area. In conclusion, hexachlorobenzene administration might have adverse effects on renal tissue and these effects become worse with increased dosages of the agent.

Keywords: hexachlorobenzene, renal cortex, ultrastructure

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