The Effect of Different Temperature and Time in Storage on the Formation of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sucuks


Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maturating and storing time at different temperatures on biogenic amine formation in fermented sucuk produced in Turkey. For this purpose, fermented sucuks were analysed for biogenic amines (tryptamine, \beta-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine) by means of HPLC using a fluorescence detector, for physicochemical characteristics (humidity, pH, water activity) and for microbiological characteristics (aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, lactic acid bacteria) before and after maturation and on days 3, 7, 14. 21, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 180 of storage using different storage conditions (refrigerator and room temperature). Before maturation, biogenic amines were as follows: tryptamine 2.3 mg/kg, \beta-phenylethylamine 2.9 mg/kg, putrescine 54.8 mg/kg, cadaverine 4.3 mg/kg, histamine 42.4 mg/kg, tyramine 29.8 mg/kg, spermidine 9.2 mg/kg and spermine 12.9 mg/kg. After maturation, biogenic amine values were determined to be tryptamine 8.5 mg/kg, \beta-phenylethylamine 21.3 mg/kg, putrescine 110.6 mg/kg, cadaverine 10.1 mg/kg, histamine 121.7 mg/kg, tyramine 159.9 mg/kg, spermidine 12.0 mg/kg and spermine 26.1 mg/kg. During storage, increases were determined in the amount of biogenic amines, except spermine and spermidine. In the analysis performed on day 180 the amount of biogenic amines were as follows: tryptamine 23.4 and 50.3 mg/kg, \beta-phenylethylamine 33.1 and 60.6 mg/kg, putrescine 223.5 and 351.5 mg/kg, cadaverine 23.5 and 61.9 mg/kg, histamine 188.3 and 426.4 mg/kg, tyramine 245.1 and 351.0 mg/kg, spermidine 7.3 and 6.0 mg/kg, and spermine 14.2 and 12.8 mg/kg respectively, in refrigeration and at room temperature. Both before and after maturation and during storage, putrescine, histamine and tyramine levels were higher than those of other biogenic amines. In conclusion, biogenic amines were higher in sucuks stored at room temperature than in refrigeration. Some suggestions can be made in order to prevent the occurrence of biogenic amines in fermented sucuks. These include using the meat in hygienic conditions, shortening the maturaton time with amine-negative starter cultures and storing the sucuks at low temperature after production.

Keywords: Turkish sucuk, biogenic amines, histamine, putrescine, tyramine.

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