Macroanatomical and Morphometric Investigation on the Maxillary Vein in Rabbits


Abstract: Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Buffered saline solution was given through the common carotid artery to remove the blood from the cranial veins. The jugular vein was ligated prior to giving blue latex to 10 rabbits and blue Batson's No. 17 to 5 rabbits through the maxillary vein. Rabbits were left for 24 hours in order to let the latex harden and then they were transferred to 10% formaldehyde solution and dissected. Rabbits that were injected with Batson's No17 were kept in 33% KOH solution for 48 hours and corrosion casts were prepared. The diameters of the veins were measured with a digital dial caliper. It was observed that the pterygoid plexus, the superficial temporal vein, the ascending pharyngeal vein, the caudal auricular vein and the ventral masseteric vein provided 25%, 21%, 21%, 20% and the 13% of the venous blood of the maxillary vein, respectively. Results of estimations of the diameter and the thickness of the vessels showed that the caudal auricular vein was 35% thicker than the rostral auricular vein. In addition, 32%, 23% and 45% of the venous blood coming to the caudal auricular vein was provided by the lateral auricular vein, the intermediate auricular vein and the deep auricular vein, respectively. It was determined that the transverse facial vein provided 40% drainage to the masseteric muscle. Other vessels that drained this muscle were the ventral masseteric vein (41%) continuing caudoventrally and the masseteric vein (19%) going caudodorsally. It was also found that a thin vein provided the drainage of a small caudal part of the nasal cavity, namely the sphenopalatine vein. It was observed that the branches from the palatine plexus passed through the palatine fissure and connected with the nasal venous plexus. Some branches passed on the rostral side through the caudal part of the incisive teeth and went to the apex nasi connected with the superior labial vein. It was determined that the palatine veins originating from the palatine plexus passed through the medial part of the lamina perpendicularis of the palatine bone and connected to the descending palatine vein. The venous plexus of the dorsal nasal concha and the venous plexus of the ventral nasal concha on either side of the cavum nasi were connected at the apex nasi and the caudal part of the cartilago septi nasi respectively. Furthermore, the venous plexus of the ventral nasal concha formed a strong anastomosis with the descending palatine vein at the choana.

Keywords: Maxillary vein, rabbit, morphometry, anatomy.

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