Authors: SABRINA MANFREDI, CIBELE CARVALHO, PAOLO FONTI, GIACOMO GNUDI, FRANCESCA MIDURI, MARTINA FABBI, ELEONORA DAGA, MANUELA RAVERA, SIMONA MORABITO, EDOARDO AURIEMMA, ILARIA PARROCCINI, MATTIA BONAZZI, ANTONELLA VOLTA
Abstract: Complications of cystocentesis in dogs and cats are seldom reported. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and ultrasonographic features of complications after diagnostic cystocentesis. Medical records of animals that underwent ultrasound-guided diagnostic cystocentesis (UGDC) were retrospectively reviewed to describe adverse events. The inclusion criteria were: ultrasound report describing the complication, signalment, clinical history, urine culture, and surgical exploration or necroscopic findings if present. Images of ultrasonographic examination were reviewed. Complications were classified as minor and major. Minor complications were defined as self-limited events; major complications were those that led to prolonged hospitalization and required intensive therapy or surgery, or lead to death. Twenty-one cases met the inclusion criteria (20 animals). Major complications included septic peritonitis (n = 2), big vessel laceration (n = 2), and acute abdomen (n = 1). Death occurred in two cases (septic peritonitis). Minor complications included nodular fat necrosis (n = 1), abdominal wall abscess formation (n = 1), intraluminal blood clots (n = 2), self-limited bleeding (n = 5), wall bladder hematoma (n = 3), bladder mucosal detachment (n = 1), intraparietal gas bubbles (n = 2), and focal peritonitis adjacent to bladder (n = 1). Findings of this study can be useful to promptly identify complications after UGDC and to ensure a proper treatment and follow-up.
Keywords: Urinary bladder, aspiration, canine, feline, risk
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