Authors: MUDASIR AHMAD SHAH, PRAKASH KINJAVDEKAR, AMARPAL -, DEEPTI SHARMA, ABHIJIT MOTIRAM PAWDE, ABU RAFEE MALIK, ABAS RASHID BHAT
Abstract: To evaluate the postoperative analgesic effects of epidural dexmedetomidine with or without local anesthetics, prospective randomized double-blinded clinical trials were performed with 24 healthy client-owned mixed-breed adult dogs with an average weight of 18.1 ± 2.4 kg allotted equally (n = 6) to four groups: A, B, C, and D. All animals were premedicated intramuscularly with atropine (0.04 mg/kg) and after 5 min by intravenous midazolam (0.7 mg/kg). After 10 min of premedication, in group A dexmedetomidine (7 µg/kg) and in groups B, C, and D, in addition to dexmedetomidine (7 µg/kg), lidocaine (4.4 mg/kg), bupivacaine (2 mg/kg), and ropivacaine (2 mg/kg), respectively, were administered to the lumbosacral epidural space, respectively. Anesthesia was maintained with 1% propofol as and when needed. Postoperative analgesia was assessed subjectively using the University of Melbourne Pain Scale (UMPS) at 1, 2, 4, and 24 h postoperatively and objectively by measuring the circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) at 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 4, and 24 h postoperatively. Overall, UMPS scores were lower in groups B, C, and D at all time points compared to group A. Serum IL-6 levels showed a nonsignificant decrease in groups B and C with a nonsignificant increase in group D at different intervals as compared to baseline. However, a significantly higher serum IL-6 level was recorded at 4 h in group A as compared to the other three groups. It was concluded that epidural dexmedetomidine in combination with lidocaine, bupivacaine, or ropivacaine at the doses studied provides better postoperative analgesia than dexmedetomidine alone in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. However, the dexmedetomidine/ropivacaine combination revealed comparatively lower postoperative analgesia than dexmedetomidine/lidocaine and dexmedetomidine/bupivacaine combinations.
Keywords: Elective ovariohysterectomy, dexmedetomidine, local anesthetics, serum interleukin-6, University of Melbourne Pain Scale, dogs
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