Effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility


Abstract: This study was done to compare the various semen parameters of infertile male smokers with nonsmokers and also draw comparisons among light, moderate, and heavy smokers. Materials and methods: A total of 130 infertile male patients were included in this study from the outpatient department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Hyderabad, from January 2010 to May 2010. The subjects were infertile males married for more than 1 year, and they were selected randomly. The subjects were thoroughly interviewed and were selected according to inclusion criteria. History about cigarette smoking and its duration was obtained and was recorded in the questionnaire form. Results of the semen examinations were collected from the laboratory. Subjects were divided into different groups as nonsmokers and smokers. Smokers were further grouped as light, moderate, and heavy smokers. Sperm motility and morphology were taken as parameters for semen analysis. Results: It was found that 33.3% of nonsmokers showed below 5% sperm motility and 25.9% showed below 3% normal sperm morphology. Meanwhile, 66.7% of smokers showed below 5% sperm motility, and 74.1% showed below 3% normal sperm morphology. Among the 3 groups of smokers, sperm motility below 5% was present in 18.8% of light smokers, 31.2% of moderate smokers, and 50% of heavy smokers. Regarding morphology of sperm, less than 3% of normal sperm cells were present in 25% of light, 35% of moderate, and 40% of heavy smokers. Conclusion: It is concluded that cigarette smoking can affect male fertility by decreasing the sperm motility and percentage of normal sperm cells. These abnormalities are also related to the amount of cigarettes smoked per day.

Keywords: Cigarette smoking, male infertility

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