Implementing universal dependency, morphology, and multiword expression annotation standards for Turkish language processing


Abstract: Released only a year ago as the outputs of a research project (``Parsing Web 2.0 Sentences'', supported in part by a TÜBİTAK 1001 grant (No. 112E276) and a part of the ICT COST Action PARSEME (IC1207)), IMST and IWT are currently the most comprehensive Turkish dependency treebanks in the literature. This article introduces the final states of our treebanks, as well as a newly integrated hierarchical categorization of the multiheaded dependencies and their organization in an exclusive deep dependency layer in the treebanks. It also presents the adaptation of recent studies on standardizing multiword expression and named entity annotation schemes for the Turkish language and integration of benchmark annotations into the dependency layers of our treebanks and the mapping of the treebanks to the latest Universal Dependencies (v2.0) standard, ensuring further compliance with rising universal annotation trends. In addition to significantly boosting the universal recognition of Turkish treebanks, our recent efforts have shown an improvement in their syntactic parsing performance (up to 77.8{\%}/82.8{\%} LAS and 84.0{\%}/87.9{\%} UAS for IMST/IWT, respectively). The final states of the treebanks are expected to be more suited to different natural language processing tasks, such as named entity recognition, multiword expression detection, transfer-based machine translation, semantic parsing, and semantic role labeling.

Keywords: Turkish, treebanks, natural language processing, dependency parsing, deep dependencies, multiword expressions, universal dependencies

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