The characterization of Na_2 CO_3 Activated Kütahya Bentonite


Abstract: A calcium bentonite from Kütahya region (Turkey) was activated with Na_2CO_3 at various ratios (1, 2, 2.5, 5, 10, 15g / 100 g bentonite). Due to ion exchange, the original Ca-bentonite was converted to Na-bentonite by Na_2CO_3 when the Na_2CO_3/bentonite ratio was 2.5\% (2.5 g Na_2CO_3/100 22g bentonite, A2.5). Na-bentonite (A2.5) obtained by soda activation was treated with 3 g CaCl_2/ 100 g bentonite and converted to Ca-bentonite again. The products were investigated by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and micropore analysis. It was observed that the cation exchange capacity (CEC) did not change until the soda ratio was 2.5\%. After this value the CEC decreased rapidly. The main montmorillonite hkl diffraction reflections were changed by Na_2CO_3 and CaCl_2 treatments. This showed that ion exchange was realized. It was observed that the specific surface area decreased from 49.34 m^2g^{-1} to 29.92 m^2g^{-1} by Na_2CO_3 and increased from 29.92 m^2g^{-1} to 70.34 m^2g^{-1} by CaCl_2. In addition, it was determined that Na_2CO_3 activated Kütahya Ca-bentonite can be used as drilling mud.

Keywords: Bentonite, montmorillonite, surface properties, CEC, drilling muds.

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