Authors: YAN NIE, ZONGJIN LI
Abstract: The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) plays crucial roles in mammalian systems has spurred considerable interest in its translational application. However, the major problem with its application in clinical settings is the high reactivity of NO, which makes it difficult to supply NO with spatiotemporal accuracy while maintaining its bioactivity. To deliver NO at a specified rate to a preferred location for a precise period of time is highly demanded. The significant technological advancements in controlled release make it possible to control NO release at the target site with a sustained release rate and an optimum concentration, and then provide a longer therapeutic duration of NO. Moreover, biomaterials designed for regenerative applications provide carriers with support structures for controlled NO releasing. Meanwhile, engineered matrices with controlled NO release have been used as vehicles for stem cell delivery to enhance cell engraftment and further to improve therapeutic effects of transplanted cells. In this review, we will provide an overview of controlled NO release materials, as well as the mechanisms of their treatment effects in tissue-repairing processes. Furthermore, the application of on-demand NO-releasing materials as carriers for stem cell transplantation and the NO-based therapeutic applications in translational medicine will be discussed.
Keywords: Nitric oxide, controlled release, biomaterial, stem cell, regenerative medicine
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