Authors: İSMAİL BEZİRĞANOĞLU
Abstract: Salinity is one of the important abiotic stresses that restrict plant development. Triticale is a highly adaptable crop, known for its high-quality grain, yield potential, and resistance to disease. Responses of five cultivated genotypes (Ümran Hanım, Mikham 2002, Melez 2001, Tatlıcak, and Alper Bey) of triticale to salt stress were tested in callus and embryogenic callus formation in this study. Cotyledon explants were selected as explants for callus induction and embryogenic callus formation. The five tested triticale genotypes varied in their callus growth and embryogenic callus formation. Ümran Hanım, Tatlıcak, and Alper Bey were observed for better callus induction; similarly, the same genotypes responded with better embryogenic callus formation in the salt in vitro media. A significant decrease in embryogenic callus growth was observed under salt stress. Based on the responses to NaCl in terms of embryogenic callus, the five triticale genotypes were ranked in the order of Tatlıcak > Ümran Hanım > Alper Bey > Mikham 2002 > Melez 2001. More proline and sugar were accumulated in these five triticale genotypes than in control plants when all were subjected to salt stress. Proline level peaked at 200 mM while the lowest and highest content was obtained at 0-200 mM salt concentrations. The accumulation of soluble sugars was strongly linked to 0-200 mM salt concentrations. Antioxidant enzyme activities exhibited an increasing trend in response to the increasing concentration of NaCl.
Keywords: Triticale, embryogenic callus, salt stress, proline, sugar
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